Inertial Electrostatic Confinement

The Cathode Space, Where it All Happens

1.  The electrodes are initially charged,  charge distributed on surfaces.

2.  An anion arrives in the central space.  More follow.  The potential is no longer that of a "simple spherical shell".

3.  Electrons surround central anions in a shell.  First "virtual electrode" at boundary between anion space and electrons.

4.  Second anion shell forms.  Second electron shell approximately at bounds of sphere enclosed by the cathode grid.